The EU Strategy for the Danube Region (EUSDR) was adopted by the European Union in 2011, and is aimed at developing the economic potential of the Danube region, improving environmental conditions and enhancing the overall prosperity and quality of life of the region’s population. The bioeconomy’s major focus, i.e. promoting the transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a biobased economy, addresses important challenges in the Danube region. These include creating a sea change in raw material use, which could potentially reduce our dependence on fossil fuels as well as reducing climate-damaging emissions. In addition, innovations in a biobased economy can support regional development by contributing to the diversification of the local economy and providing new employment opportunities, for example by supplying biogenic raw materials that are then processed into intermediate products or by manufacturing biobased final products.